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standing the test of time

Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydiae are small obligate cell parasites.

The reproductive cycle of the chlamydiae comprises two developmental stages: The elementary bodies are optimally adapted to survival outside of host cells. The initial bodies, also known as reticulate bodies, are the form which the chlamydiae reproduce inside the host cells by means of transverse fission.

Three human pathogen species of chlamydiae are known: C. psitacci, C.trachomatis and C. pneumoniae (see tab.).

Species

Clinical manifestations

Mechanism of infection

C.trachomatis

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) Trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, urethritis(nonspecific)

Direct or sexual transmission: Primary infection of ocular or urogenital mucosa.

C.pneumoniae

Infections of the respiratory tract, often subacute. Role in atherosclerosis of coronary arteries still unclear.

Only in humans, aerogenic transmission.

C.psittaci

Ornithosis (Psittacosis)

Reservoir: infected birds. Infection by inhalation of pathogen-containing dust.

Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen that infects only humans. It causes the following diseases:

Trachoma: is a follicular keratoconjunctivitis. The disease occurs in all climatic zones, although it is more frequent in warmer, less-developed countries. It is estimated that 400 million people carry this chronic infection and that it has caused blindness in six million. The pathogen is transmitted by direct contact and indirectly via objects in daily use. Left untreated, the initially acute inflammation can develop a chronic course lasting months or years and leading to formation of a corneal scar, which can then cause blindness.

Inclusion conjunctivitis: This is an acute, purulent papillary conjunctivitis that may affect neonates, children and adults (swimming-pool conjunctivitis). Newborn children are infected during birth by pathogens colonizing the birth canal. Left untreated, a pannus may form as in trachoma, followed by corneal scarring.

Urogenital infections: C. trachomatis is responsible for 30-60% of cases of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. The source of infection is the female sexual partner. Possible complications include prostatitis and epididymitis, in woman C. trachomatis can cause urethritis, proctitis, or infections of the genital organs. Massive perinatal infection of a neonate may lead to an interstitial chlamydial pneumonia.

Lymphogranuloma venereum: This venereal disease is frequently observed in the inhabitants of warm climatic zones. A herpetiform primary lesion develops at the site of invasion in the genital area, which then becomes an ulcus with accompanying lymphadenitis.

Infections may be diagnosed by:

  • Microscopy: Determination eg. of initial bodies in conjunctival cells
  • Serology: Determination of specific antibodies based on the ELISA-technique

In the majority of cases the asymptomatic infection by Chlamydiae is a problem: The primary infection can?t be diagnosed and therefore damages (poss. chronic disease) are caused.

NovaLisaTM Chlamydia trachomatis IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA:

Both the NovaLisaTM Chlamydia trachomatis IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA and the NovaLisaTM Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of IgA-/IgG-/IgM- class antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis resp. Chlamydia pneumoniae in serum or plasma (citrate).

Specific performance characteristics:

Chlamydia trachomatis

Intraassay

Interassay

Sensitivity%

 Specificity%

 

n

Mean

CV%

 n

Mean

CV%

 

 

IgA

24

0,882

4,7

12

24,3

7,1

>95

97,3

IgG

24

2,07

3,7

12

61

2,8

>95

91.3

IgM

24

1,29

3,1

12

78,5

12,1

83.3

>95

Antigens:
Highly purified C. trachomatis LGV Type II strain 434 antigens

Order information:

ELISA

Number of determinations

Product number

Chlamydia trachomatis IgA

96

CHLA0070

Chlamydia trachomatis IgG

96

CHLG0070

Chlamydia trachomatis IgM

96

CHLM0070