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Toxoplasma gondii 2nd Generation

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoon that has a worldwide distribution. This obligate intracellular parasite can infect humans as well as virtually all warm-blooded animals, including mammals and birds. The life cycle of T. gondii is facultatively heteroxenous. Intermediate hosts are probably all warm-blooded animals including most livestock, and humans. Definitive hosts are members of the family Felidae, for example domestic cats.

There are three infectious stages in the life cycle of T. gondii, i.e. tachyzoites, bradyzoites (in tissue cysts), and sporozoites (in sporulated oocysts). All three stages are infectious for both intermediate and definitive hosts.

T. gondii infections may be acquired mainly via one of the following routes: by oral ingestion of infectious oocysts from the environment, by oral ingestion of tissue cysts contained in raw or undercooked meat of intermediate hosts, or by transplacental transmission of tachyzoites.

While infection with T. gondii in humans is very common, clinical disease is largely confined to risk groups. Most T. gondii infections in immunocompetent humans are asymptomatic.

However, if first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted to the foetus. Congenital toxoplasmosis may cause abortion, neonatal death, or foetal abnormalities with detrimental consequences for the foetus. If not treated, the risk of intrauterine infection of the foetus increases during pregnancy.

Disease

Symptoms

Mechanism of Infection

Postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis

Immunocompetent patients:

  • Usually asymptomatic or very mild
  • Nonspecific symptoms including cervical lymphadenopathy and other symptoms of generalized infection (fever, malaise, night sweats, myalgia, sore throat and maculopapular rash)

Ingestion of tissue cysts in infected meat or viscera

 

Reactivated toxoplasmosis

Immunocompromised patients:

  • encephalitis, myocarditis and pneumonitis

Oocysts in food or water contaminated with feline faeces

Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenitally infected newborns:

  • chorioretinitis, blindness, epilepsy, mental retardation, anemia, jaundice, encephalitis, pneumonitis and others
  • Complete recovery is very rare

Congenital transmission: if the acute phase of the infection occurs during pregnancy, the parasite can cross the placenta and infect the fetus


Infections may be diagnosed by:

  • Serology:    Determination of specific antibodies by ELISA, indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA)
  • Parasite detection: PCR

NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA:

The NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA is intended for the quantitative determination of IgG-class antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human serum or plasma (citrate).


NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgM µ-capture ELISA:

The NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgM µ-capture ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of IgM-class antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human serum or plasma (citrate).

Antigens:

Toxoplasma gondii lysate (IgG) and Toxoplasma gondii chimeric antigens (IgM)

Specific performance characteristics:

Intraassay

Interasay

Sensitivity%

Specificity%

n

Mean

CV%

n

Mean

CV%

IgG

6

0.978

5.7

4

0.752

7.1

96.6

98.2

6

1.647

5.3

4

1.26

10.1

6

2.496

6.2

4

1.98

6.3

IgM
µ-capture

24

1.563

2.9

12

7.08

6.5

95.8

>98

24

0.304

1.5

12

16.68

4.5


NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity Test*:  

The avidity determination is a diagnostic method which is used to differentiate a recent (acute) and a more distant (past) infection with Toxoplasma gondii in patient sera. Avidity is the binding force of the antibody (serum specimen) with the corresponding antigen. 

The determination of IgG avidity relies on the progressive increase of the affinity of an antibody for its target antigen during the course of natural immunity following an infections. Measuring the strength of the antibody binding is a way to confirm or rule out a recent infection. Low-avidity antibodies from a recent acquired Toxoplama gondii infection can be differentiated from high-avidity antibodies, which is an indicative of past infection.

In other words, low avid IgG antibodies in the early stage of infection can be differentiated from high avid antibodies associated with a past infection.

The determination of IgG antibody avidity is an additional analysis to the classic serology in regards to the status of a Toxoplasma gondii infection.

The NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity Test is an additional reagent-kit that has to be used in combination with NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA.  


Performance Characteristics:

The NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity Test has been evaluated for use in Toxoplasmosis with samples of acute and past infections. A total number of 86 defined patient samples were tested. These samples were supplied by the Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and  Parasitology, University Bonn.  





Defined Samples

Acute Infection

Past Infection

Total

Agreement
(%)

NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity Test

Acute Infection

36

1

37

94.7

Past Infection

2

47

49

97.9

Total

38

48

86

96.5


Order information:

ELISA

Number of Determinations

Product Number

Toxoplasma IgG

96

TOXG0460

Toxoplasma IgM µ-capture

96

TOXM0460

Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Test*

96

TOXGA460

* The NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity Test is an additional reagent that has to be used in combination with the NovaLisa® Toxoplama gondii IgG ELISA.


RiliBÄK

With Liquickeck® ToRCH Plus Control (Bio-Rad) an external control is available for the NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG

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Toxoplasma IgG