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Adenovirus

Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of diseases, which may occur singly or currently. The most important are infections of the upper (sometimes lower) respiratory tracts, the eyes, and the intestinal tract.

Adenoviruses are nonenveloped, 70 - 90 nm in size, and icosahedral. Their morphogenesis occurs in the cell nucleus, where they also aggregate to form large crystals. Their genome is a linear, double - stranded DNA.

They mainly infect cells of the epithelium in the eyes, the pharynx, the respiratory and the intestinal tract. After an incubation period of 5-10 days different symptoms can occur (see table bellow).

Humans are the source of infection. Susceptibility is the rule. Generalized contamination of the population begins so early in the childhood that Adenovirus infections play more a significant role in children than in adults. About 5% of all common colds at infants under 5 years might be caused by Adenoviruses and they are the second most frequent diarrhea pathogen after rotaviruses.

Transmission of respiratory adenoviruses is primarily by droplet infection, but also as smear infections since the virus is also excreted in stool. Eye infections can be contracted from bathing water or, in the case of Adenovirus type 8 in particular, iatrogenically from insufficiently sterilized ophthalmological instruments. The enteral infections are also transmitted by the fecal-oral route, mainly by contact rather than in water or food.

Species

Disease

Symptoms

Mechanism of Infection

Adenovirus

Infections of the respiratory tract

The take the form of rhinitis or abacterial pharyngitis, depending on the type as well as presumably on the disposition of the patient. They may also develop into acute, influenzalike infections or even, especially in small children, into a potentially fatal pneumonia

The respiratory tract is most often infected by the types 1, 2, 5 and 6

Eye Infection

May occur alone but are often concurrent with pharyngitis, range from follicular conjunctivitis to a form of keratoconjunctivitis that may even cause permanent partial loss of eyesight

The eye is entryway of the adenovirus type 3 and 7, especially if PCF is transmitted by bathing water

Intestinal Infection

 

 

Infectious may be diagnosed by:

Microscopy: Determination of Adenovirus in cell cultures
Serology:    Determination of specific antibodies based on the ELISA-technique

NovaLisaTM Adenovirus IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA:

The NovaLisaTM Adenovirus IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of IgA-, IgG- and IgM- class antibodies against Adenovirus in human serum or plasma (citrate).  
 
Antigens:

Highly purified antigens of strain Adenoid 6
 
Specific performance characteristics:

Intraassay

Interassay

Sensitivity

Specificity

n

Mean

CV%

n

Mean

CV%

IgA

20

1.27

2.8

12

28.5

3.8

>90%

>90%

IgG

24

0.82

6.1

12

25.0

4.3

>95%

71.4%*

IgM

20

0.36

11.3

12

0.30

8.3

90%

>95%

*preliminary result due to small number of samples available

Order information:

ELISA

Number of
Determinations

Product
Number

Adenovirus IgA

96

ADVA0010

Adenovirus IgG

96

ADVG0010

Adenovirus IgM

96

ADVM0010

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Adenovirus IgA